I. What is an emergency light?
Emergency lamp is a type of lamp that can effectively illuminate and display evacuation passages when the normal lighting power supply fails, or can continue to illuminate and work uninterrupted. Widely used in public places and places where lighting cannot be interrupted.
Emergency lamp is composed of a light source, light source driver, rectifier, inverter, battery pack, sign lamp housing and other parts. Usually, 36V drives the light source for normal lighting through the light source driver, and supplements the battery pack with power through the rectifier. Even when the lighting is turned off after getting off work, the rectifier still works in a charging state, so that the battery pack is always in full combat readiness. When encountering an emergency and the city power suddenly stops, the inverter will automatically start the inverter circuit, convert the low-voltage power of the battery pack into high-voltage power, and drive the light source to continue lighting.
II. The function and composition of emergency light
Evacuation emergency lamps and sign lights, collectively referred to as fire emergency lighting, are an important product required in fire safety measures. Usually it needs to provide lighting like ordinary lamps. When there is an emergency, such as an earthquake, fire or circuit failure, the power supply is suddenly interrupted, and all light sources have stopped working. At this time, it must immediately provide reliable lighting and indicate the evacuation of people. Directions and location of emergency exits to ensure smooth evacuation of people stranded in the dark. It can be seen that an emergency lamp is a light source that keeps lighting and guides evacuation in emergency situations.
Emergency lamp is composed of a light source, battery (or accumulator), lamp body and electrical components, etc. The best rechargeable emergency light using gas discharge light sources such as fluorescent lamps also includes converters and its ballast device.
Emergency Charging Light
III. Types of Emergency Light
1. Fire Emergency Lamp
Applicable to: theaters, shopping malls, hotels, banks, hospitals, apartments, civil air defense projects, underground facilities and other places that require uninterrupted lighting.
Emergency lighting can be classified according to working status and function.
➢ According to the working status, it can be divided into 3 categories:
① Continuous Emergency Light
Regardless of whether the normal lighting power supply fails, it can continue to provide lighting.
② Non-continuous Emergency Light
Lighting is only provided when the normal lighting power supply fails.
③ Composite Emergency Light
Emergency lighting fixtures are equipped with more than two light sources, at least one of which can provide lighting when the normal lighting power supply fails.
➢ According to the function can be divided into 2 categories:
① Lighting Lamp
In the event of an accident, the necessary lighting can be provided to walkways, exit passages, stairs and potentially hazardous areas.
② Signal Lamp
It can clearly indicate the direction of exit and passage. There are text and icons on the light. The brightness of the sign surface is 7-10cd/㎡. The stroke thickness of the text is at least 19mm, the height is at least 150mm, and the translucent text has a greater contrast with the background.
The choice of battery should meet the following requirements:
When using incandescent lamps, the discharge time is not less than 20 minutes, and when using fluorescent lamps, the discharge time is not less than 30 minutes;
For emergency lights that cannot be installed too large, nickel-cadmium batteries or lead-acid batteries should be used, and large-capacity batteries can be used for longer discharge times. Open-type battery;
electrical components include DC and AC converters, switches for detecting circuit performance, ballast components, etc.
2. Emergency Lighting
Application areas: warehouse, cable trench, roadway and special occasion lighting/emergency lighting.
- High efficiency and energy saving: The fourth-generation green environmental protection, high-power white LED solid-state light source is adopted, with high light efficiency and a service life of up to 100,000 hours, which can achieve long-term maintenance-free.
- Humanized product design, customers can choose suitable working voltage according to different lighting places.
- Low energy consumption, the power consumption is only 20% of the same luminous flux incandescent lamp.
- Using wide voltage design, it is more convenient to use.
- The use of LED anti-glare lampshade makes the light softer, without glare, does not cause eye fatigue of operators, and improves work efficiency.
- Good electromagnetic compatibility will not pollute the power supply.
- The shell is made of light alloy material, which is wear-resistant, anti-corrosion, waterproof and dustproof.
- The transparent parts are made of imported bulletproof rubber material, with high light transmittance and good impact resistance, which can enable the lamps to work normally in various harsh environments.
- The emergency power supply adopts a polymer lithium battery, which is safe and efficient and has a long service life.
- Humanized design: It can automatically/manually switch the emergency function.
Emergency Exit Sign With Lights
IV. Installation specifications and installation standards for emergency lighting
If the rechargeable emergency light is installed on the upper end of the exit door frame, the installation height should not be less than 2m. If it is installed on the wall of the corridor, the height should not exceed 1m. However, the installation height can also be adjusted according to the actual situation. In addition, the LED warning light should be installed in a place without obstructions, so as not to affect the light effect. Let’s follow George Light’s editor to learn about the installation standards for emergency lamps.
➢ Installation Specification For Fire Emergency Light
Under normal circumstances, the installation height of an emergency charging light is generally 2.2m, but it also needs to be combined with the actual situation. For example, in a large space, the number of emergency lights increases and the density of use increases. Naturally, its height needs to be adjusted, but the installation height of emergency lamps must comply with local fire regulations. At the same time, it should be installed in a place without obstructions, so as not to affect the light effect, and it is not convenient for future maintenance work. In the scope of construction, only the brightness of the LED emergency light is limited. In normal situations, it should be greater than 0.5lx, such as fire-related spaces, generator rooms, etc. The brightness of an emergency lamp is based on the brightness standard of ordinary lamps.
For fire compartments, emergency light shall have a separate circuit, and fire barriers shall be provided in each compartment. In addition, the installation of emergency lamps should avoid the impact on normal lighting, and it is best not to have similar signs around the installation location. At the same time, when the working temperature of emergency lighting exceeds 60 degrees Celsius and is very close to combustibles, fire prevention measures must be taken.
In spaces such as walkways and corridors, emergency light is often installed at the lower end of the wall because it is used as an evacuation channel, with a height of no more than 1m. And will also install safety exit signs, mainly distributed in corners, corridors, the top of the exit and so on. Among them, a distance of 20cm should be maintained between the sign lights, and if it is a civil air defense project, it should not exceed 10cm.
➢ Emergency Lighting Installation Standards
- Installation Height
1. The installation height of emergency light is generally 2.3m, and the building code only defines the illuminance of the occasions where LED rechargeable emergency light is installed, that is, it is not less than 0.5lx for non-special occasions, fire control room, fire pump room, self-provided generator. The illuminance of the mechanical and electrical room should meet the requirements of normal lighting illuminance.
2. The emergency installation is generally installed on the top in the correct direction. The specification does not clearly define the installation distance. In the actual installation, it is generally installed at a distance of 20m in the aisle. It is better to install in a large space to maintain a continuous visual effect.
3. Safety evacuation signs should be placed on the top of the Taiping Gate or on the wall below 1m from the ground at the evacuation aisle and its corners. The distance between the signs on the walkway should not be greater than 20m. Fire emergency lighting and safety evacuation indicators shall be provided with protective covers made of glass and other non-combustible materials.
4. The installation distance of emergency evacuation indicator lights or safety exit lights should not be greater than 20 meters.
- Installation Location
1. The “safety exit” should be used as an indicator directly above the safety exit and evacuation door.
2. The evacuation stairwell should be marked with obvious signs to indicate the location and the number of floors, so that the people in the building can know their position in time, so as to facilitate safe evacuation.
3. Emergency lights for fire evacuation should be installed on the wall, on the top of the exit or on the ceiling, suitable for fire double-head emergency lighting, fire emergency ceiling light, fire emergency downlight/spotlight, etc.
4. Double-headed fire emergency lights are usually installed above the door frame or the wall of the fire evacuation passage or safe escape exit, at the corner of the stairs, etc., and are installed at a distance of about 2.2 meters from the ground. Longer distance evacuation passages should be installed. According to the guidance of the fire department, or according to the illuminance of the emergency lamps in the actual use place, increase the lighting density of the lamps and install them reasonably.
5. In a fire state, there is less smoke and more oxygen near the ground, and the instinctive response of people to evacuate is to bend over or crawl forward. Therefore, local high-intensity lighting is more effective than the uniform illumination brought by high-level installation. Therefore, low-level installation should be promoted, that is, emergency lights for evacuation should be provided close to the ground or at ground level.
- Power Supply
1. Fire emergency lights and safety evacuation lights must have two power sources, namely normal power and emergency backup power. The emergency backup power supply is generally supplied by self-provided power generation and storage batteries. If storage batteries are used, the continuous power supply time cannot be less than 200 minutes.
2. In addition to the normal power supply, the power supply of emergency lighting should be powered by another power supply or powered by a battery cabinet or use an emergency lamp with its own power supply.
3. After the normal power supply is cut off for emergency light, the power conversion time is: evacuation lighting ≤ 15S; backup lighting ≤ 15S; safety lighting ≤ 0.5S.
4. The emergency lights are all discharged from the factory and must be charged for 20 hours before use.
The illuminance of fire emergency lights and safety evacuation signs should not be lower than 0.5lx, so that they can fully illuminate walkways, stairs and other evacuation routes. The fire control room, fire pump room, self-provided generator room, and the parts that still need to work in the event of a fire must also ensure normal lighting.
- Evacuation Lighting
1. Evacuation lighting consists of safety exit signs and evacuation signs. The safety exit sign light shall be no less than 2m above the ground, and shall be installed above the evacuation exit and the inner side of the stairway.
2. Fire-resistant wires and cables shall be used for evacuation lighting lines, which shall be laid openly through pipes or concealed through rigid conduits in non-combustible bodies, and the thickness of the protective layer shall not be less than 30mm. The wire adopts copper core insulated wire with rated voltage not less than 750V.
3. Evacuation sign lights should be installed on the top of the safety exit, stairwells, evacuation walkways and their corners should be installed on the wall below 1m. The distance between the marker lights on the evacuation passage is not more than 20m.
4. The setting of evacuation signs will not affect normal traffic, and other signs that are easy to mix with evacuation signs should not be set around it.
- Inspection & Maintenance
1. The emergency lighting circuit has an independent emergency lighting circuit in each fire compartment, and the lines passing through different fire compartments have fire blocking measures.
2. Emergency light fixtures, lamps whose operating temperature is greater than 60°C, should take fire prevention measures such as heat insulation and heat dissipation when they are close to combustibles.
3. In the engineering design, in order to facilitate the maintenance and management at ordinary times, it is best to supply power to the fire emergency lighting by a dedicated feeder circuit by floor.
4. The performance of emergency lamps in use should be checked regularly, and the continuous switch test should be passed every half month or one month to check the circuit conversion and the emergency function of the battery, and discharge it to prolong the service life of the battery. At the same time, ifire can be used for emergency light maintenance to ensure normal use in the event of a fire.
5. Do a good job of fire protection for power distribution lines, lay them in the non-combustible structure when they are installed in the dark, and the thickness of the protective layer is not less than 30mm; wear metal pipes when they are installed in the open, and paint fire-resistant paint on the outside of the steel pipes or take other fire-proof measures; Use fire-resistant cables or fire-resistant cables and wires.